Most of the country is desert and steppe, dominated by an artemisia, a salsola, a sand acacia, a saxaul and a tamarisk. The vegetation of river valleys that occur on dry plains, is fundamentally different from the surrounding desert vegetation. Here there are forests "tugai", where there are a poplar, a willow and a mulberry. In the eastern part of Uzbekistan on the slopes extend broadleaf forests of nut trees, a maple, a birch, an ash and a poplar.

The fauna of the vast desert areas of Uzbekistan is represented by wild boars, wolves, foxes, rabbits and a variety of lizards, snakes and rodents.

In local deserts lives a  rare saiga antelope and a half meter lizard.
Mountainous areas inhabited by wild boars, wolves, foxes, mountain goats, martens, badgers and a rare snow leopard.
Here there are a pheasants, a larks, an owls and large birds of prey.

In reservoirs of Uzbekistan live a dozen species of fish, including the Aral salmon, a trout, a pike, a Aral barbel, a carp, a goldfish, a catfish, a pike.